Rohtak is a city and the administrative headquarters of the Rohtak district in the Indian state of Haryana. It lies 70 kilometres (43 mi) north west of New Delhi, just 40–45 km from Delhi Border and 250 kilometres (160 mi) south of the state capital Chandigarh on NH 10. Rohtak forms a part of the National Capital Region (NCR), which provides immediate benefits for the district as it can secure loans for infrastructure development at cheaper rates from the NCR Planning Board (NCRPB).

Rohtak is the sixth most populous city in Haryana as per the 2011 census with population of 374,292 and has literacy rate of 84.08.

History

It is believed that the city’s name is of Indo-Aryan origin and is recorded in the Vedas. It was founded by the Rajputs people, and was named Rohtashgarh. Many aryans migrate in this city. The Jats & Rajputs of Rohtak under the leadership of Khokhar , attacked Mahmud Gaznavi and also accompanied Khokhar Jats in 1206 AD against Mohmad Gouri. Subsequently the evolution of the named is traced as “Rohītaka-kula > Rohitaka > Rohtak” and Michael Witzel notes that this accords with the place existing around 500 BC. The same source also suggests that the name may have derived from the tree Rohitaka as well, a tree well known in the area for its superb timber.

The ruins of the ancient town at Khokrakot suggest that perhaps the town is as old as Indus valley Civilization as the Minar finds at Khokhrakot are typical of Indus Valley sites. It is also identified with Rohitika, a place mentioned in the Mahabharata It was quite possibly the capital of Bahudhanyaka, the kingdom of Yaudheyas. In the Vinaya of the Mulasarvasti-vadins, Jivaka is represented as taking journey from Taxila in the north west of Bhadramkara, Udumbasa, Rohitaka and Nathura in the Ganga Doab. The ancient highway carried the trade of the ganga valley to Taxila passing through Rohitika to Sakala. The existence of the town during the rule of Kushan is testified by the recovery of Khushana Pillar Capital decorated with carving of winged lions and riders. An example of a lion capital of the 1st or 2nd century AD, it resembles the lion capital in the British museum at London, well known for its inscriptions. The riders on it are similar to the riders on elephant at Karle cave and figures at Sanchi Gateway. It is a significant example of the sculptural art of Haryana towards the beginning of the Christian era. Clay mounds of coins discovered at Khokhrakot have thrown important light on the process of casting coins in ancient India. The coin moulds of the later Yadhyayas of the 3rd or 4th century AD have been discovered in large number here of the same and subsequent dates are several clay sealings. A Gupta terracotta plaque and a head of later date have also been discovered. The town continued to flourish till the 10th century AD as coins of Samanta Deva, the Hindu King of Kabul have been found here.